As a modern materials group, polymers show fascinating properties that are not only relevant for applications in materials engineering, but also in the field of solid state physics. Research in polymer physics of the nanostructure of synthetic or bio-polymers allows for the possibility of creating novel surface coatings. This can lead to new developments in the areas of control of the adsorption of proteins, solar cells, photonic crystals, polymer particle based targeted drug delivery or intelligent polymer systems.